Jika melihat pada kamus bahasa Inggris, secara harfiah narrative bermakna (1) a spoken or written account of connected events; a story. (2) the narrated part of a literary work, as distinct from dialogue. (3) the practice or art of narration.
(Narrative bermakna : 1. sebuah cerita baik terucap atau tertulis tentang peristiwa-peristiwa yang berhubungan. 2. bagian yang diceritakan dalam sebuah karya sastra, berbeda dengan dialog. 3. Praktik atau seni bercerita)
Generic Structure dari Narrative Text
Bagi sobat yang masih duduk di bangku sekolah tingkat menengah, penjelasan mengenai narrative texts tak usah sulit-sulit ya.. Intinya, narrative text ini mempunyai struktur / susunan seperti di bawah ini :
- Orientation : It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are introduced.(berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan dimana)
- Complication : Where the problems in the story developed. (Permasalahan muncul / mulai terjadi dan berkembang)
- Resolution : Where the problems in the story is solved. Masalah selesai, — secara baik “happy ending” ataupun buruk “bad ending”.
Jika sudah mahir membuat cerita narrative, susunannya bisa diubah-ubah kok, yang terpenting bagian-bagian di atas masih tetap ada dalam tulisan narrative sobat.
Grammar Used dalam Narrative Text
Grammar (tata bahasa) yang sering muncul dalam membuat narrative text adalah:
Menggunakan tenses “Past”, baik simple, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect continuous, atau bisa saja past future continuous. (aturan ini bukan aturan wajib yang mutlak harus dipenuhi kok. Tidak percaya, tanyakan pada guru bahasa Inggris sobat)
Untuk lebih jelasnya, lihat contohnya di bawah ini :
Contoh Narrative Text (1)
Sincere Will Get a Great Return
Once upon a time, there was a kingdom named Auretto, all people lived peacefully there. One of them was Charlita, the king’s daughter who was assumed as the most beautiful and kindest Princess of Auretto.One day, Charlita looked blue. Because of that her father got confused. “What’s the matter my beautiful daughter? Why are you so sad?” asked King Fernando. Charlita was just silent. She did not say anything.Then, King Fernando decided to make a competition to cheer Charlita again. After that, the palace representative announce: “I will make a competition. The aim is to make my daughter, Princess Charlita to be happy and laugh again. Everyone who can do it, will get a prize. It will be held tomorrow when the sun rises. Sign: King Fernando.”The following morning, everybody came to the palace, tried to give their best performance. They seemed happy and laugh, but not for Princess Charlita. She was just silent and still looked sad.King Fernando started to give up. No one amused his daughter. Then, there came a young handsome man. “Excuse me King Fernando. I would like to join your competition. But, would you mind if I took Princess Charlita for a walk?” said the young man gently. “As long as you make my daughter be happy again, it will totally alright.” said King Fernando. The young handsome man took Princess Charlita for a walk in a beautiful blue lake with a green forest around it. Princess Charlita smiled and looked happy after that. Every body looked happy, too. “I know why are you so my beautiful daughter. Now, I promise I will environment green. I regret for always destroying it. Finally, the environment around the kingdom became so beautiful and green, full of plants. Then, the young handsome man got a prize from the king. “I will marry you off my daughter.” said him. “That is the prize I promise for you. Thanks for keeping our environment well. Thanks for making my daughter happy again.”
Contoh Narrative Text (2)
Once upon a time, there was a little poor boy came into a little village. He was very hungry and weak. He knocked at every door and asked for some food, but nobody cared about him. Nobody wanted to help the little boy.Finally, a generous woman helped him. She gave him shelter and a meal. When the boy wanted to leave, this old woman gave him a “lesung”, a big wooden mortar for pounding rice. She reminded him, “please remember, if there is a flood you must save yourself. Use this “lesung” as a boat”. The “lesung” was happy and thanked the old woman.The little boy continued his journey. While he was passing through the village, he saw many people gathering on the field. The boy came closer and saw a stick stuck in the ground. People challenged each other to pull out that stick. Everybody tried, but nobody succeeded. “Can I try?” asked the little boy. The crowd laughed mockingly. The boy wanted to try his luck so he stepped forward and pulled out the stick. He could do it very easily. Everybody was dumbfounded.Suddenly, from the hole left by stick, water spouted out. It did not stop until it flooded the village. And no one was saved from the water except the little boy and the generous old woman who gave him shelter and meal. As she told him, he used the “lesung” as a boat and picked up the old woman. The whole village became a huge lake. It is now known as Rawa Pening Lake in Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia.Snow White
Once upon a time there lived a little, named Snow White. She lived with her aunt and uncle because her parents were died.
One day she heard her aunt and uncle talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White with them.
Snow White didn’t want her uncle and aunt to do this. So she decided to run away. The next morning she run away from home when her aunt and uncle were having breakfast, she run away into the wood.
In the wood she felt very tired and hungry. Then she saw this cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and felt asleep
Meanwhile seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There, they found Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said; “What is your name?”. Snow White said; “My name is Snow White”. One of the dwarfs said; “If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White told the whole story about her. Then Snow white ad the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.The Bear and Rabbit
Once upon a time, there lived a bear and a rabbit. The rabbit is a good shot. In contrary, the bear is always clumsy and could not use the arrow.
One day, the bear called over the rabbit and asked the rabbit to take his bow and arrows.
The rabbit was fearing to arouse the bear’s anger so he could not refuse it. He went with the bear and shot enough buffalo to satisfy the hungry family. Indeed he shot and killed so many that there were lots of meats left after.
However the bear did not want the rabbit to get any of the meat. The rabbit could not even taste the meat. The poor rabbit would have to go home hungry after his hard day’s work.
The bear was the father of five children. Fortunately, the youngest child was very kind to the rabbit. He was very hearty eater. The mother bear always gave him an extra large piece of meat but the youngest child did not eat it. He would take it outside with him and pretended to play ball with the meat. He kicked toward the rabbit’s house.When he got close to the door he would give the meat with such a great kick. The meat would fly into the rabbit’s house. In this way, the poor rabbit would get his meal.The Legend of Toba Lake
Once upon time, there was a handsome man. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. He liked fishing. One day, he caught a fish. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. The fish begged him to set it free.
Batara Guru could not bear it. He made the fish free. As soon as it was free, the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. She attracted Batara Guru so much. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it.
They were married happily. They had two daughters. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. He could not control his mad. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. The daughters were crying. They found their mother and talked her about it.
The mother was very annoyed. Batara Guru broke his promise. The mother was shouting angrily. Then the earth began to shake. Volcanoes started to erupt. The earth formed a very big hole. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Then this lake is known as Toba lake.The Monkey and The Crocodile
One day there was a monkey. He wanted to cross a river. There he saw a crocodile so he asked the crocodile to take him across the other side of the river. The crocodile agree and told the monkey to jump on its back. Then the crocodile swam down the river with the monkey on his top.Unluckily, the crocodile was very hungry, he stopped in the middle of the river and said to the monkey, “My father is very sick. He has to eat the heart of the monkey. So he will be healthy again.”
At the time, the monkey was in dangerous situation and he had to think hard. Then he had a good idea. He told the crocodile to swim back to the river bank. “What’s for?” asked the crocodile. “Because I don’t bring my heart,” said the monkey. “I left it under a tree, near some coconuts in the river bank.”
The crocodile agreed and turned around. He swam back to the bank of the river. As soon as they reached the river bank, the monkey jumped off the crocodile’s back. Then he climbed up to the top of a tree.
“Where is your heart?” asked the crocodile. “You are foolish,” said the monkey to the crocodile. “Now I am free and I have my heart.The Smartest Parrot
Once upon time, a man had a wonderful parrot. There was no other parrot like it. The parrot could say every word, except one word. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. The name of the place was Catano.
The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word.
At the first, the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Although he tried hard to teach, the parrot would not say it. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over; “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano.
One day, after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano, the man really got very angry. He could not bear it. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Then he continued to humble; “You know, I will cut the chicken for my meal. Next it will be your turn, I will eat you too, stupid parrot”. After that he left the chicken house.
The next day, the man came back to the chicken house. He opened the door and was very surprised. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. There were three death chickens on the floor. At the moment, the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken; “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”